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Flora of Sri Lanka

   

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Flora of Sri Lanka Palm Trees, Peradeniya

Floral Species found in Sri Lanka

 

The island of Sri Lanka with only a land area of around 65500 sq. kM, is well endowed with the mother Nature's blessings, one can say. The whole island is a mass of land where the plant life is very rich and vibrant with all shades of Green colour leaves. There are around 3500 Flora species in Sri Lanka and about one quarter of that is endemic to the country.

The vegetation types of the island mainly varies with the climate and the topography. The rainfall and the temperature are the most important factors of the climatic conditions.

There are four major zones of vegetation types in Sri Lanka.

The Arid Zone has a temperature between 32-36 degrees Celsius. The Rainfall is below 100 mm per year and the Altitude is less than 300 meters. The forest type is referred as Tropical Thorn Scrub.

The Dry Zone has a temperature between 28-32 degrees Celsius. The Rainfall is between 1000-1500 mm per year and the Altitude is less than 500 meters. The forest type is referred as Tropical Dry Mixed Evergreen.

The Intermediate Zone has a temperature between 24-28 degrees Celsius. The Rainfall is between 1250-2000 mm per year and the Altitude is between 500-1500 meters. The forest type is referred as Tropical Moist Evergreen.

The Wet Zone has a temperature between 16-28 degrees Celsius. The Rainfall is above 2000 mm per year and the Altitude range is divided in to three categories.

The vegetation type in the altitude range of between 300-1000 meters is called as Tropical Lowland Wet Evergreen forests.

The vegetation type in the altitude range of between 900-1500 meters is called as Tropical Sub Montane forests.

The vegetation type in the altitude range of above 1500 meters is called as Tropical Upper Montane forests.

 

Some vegetation types across the island are imaged below.

 

Anuradhapura Area
Ritigala Area Wewa

Anuradhapura Area

Tropical Dry Mixed Evergreen

Ritigala Area Wewa

Tropical Dry Mixed Evergreen

 

Mahaweli River Banks, Peradeniya , Kandy
Udawattakele Sanctuary, Kandy

Mahaweli River Banks, Peradeniya , Kandy

Tropical Moist Evergreen

Udawattakele Sanctuary, Kandy

Tropical Moist Evergreen

 

 

Riverston, Knuckles Range
Riverston, Knuckles Range

Riverston, Knuckles Range

Tropical Sub Montane

Riverston, Knuckles Range

Tropical Sub Montane

 

Phoenix Rock Area, Knuckles Range
Knuckles Peaks , Knuckles Mountain Range

Phoenix Rock Area, Knuckles Range

Tropical Sub Montane

Knuckles Peaks , Knuckles Mountain Range

Tropical Upper Montane

 

The vegetation type of Sinharaja Tropical Rain Forest in the altitude range of between 300-1150 with a Rainfall between 3500-5000 mm is a Tropical Lowland Wet Evergreen forest type.

Moulawella View Point, Sinharaja Rain Forest
Moulawella View Point, Sinharaja Rain Forest

Moulawella View Point, Sinharaja Rain Forest

Tropical Lowland Wet Evergreen

Moulawella View Point, Sinharaja Rain Forest

Tropical Lowland Wet Evergreen

 

 

The vegetation type of the Jaffna Lagoon in the altitude range of 0 in the Dry Zone is mainly Mangroves along the shores and scrublands in the sandy areas. The Rainfall is between 500-700 mm annually mostly with Northeast monsoon from October to February.

Jaffna Lagoon Flora
Jaffna Lagoon Flora

Jaffna Lagoon area near Elephant Pass

Dry Zone Lagoon Eco System

Jaffna Lagoon area near Elephant Pass

Dry Zone Lagoon Eco System

 

 

Some important flora species [of Trees ] found at Peradeniya Botanical Garden is displayed with Species and Family description with the local Sinhala name with many photographs.

The World heritage Sinharaja Rain Forest 's Flora species such as Navanda or Nava Dun (Shorea stipularis), Hora (Dipterocarpus zeylancus), Bu Hora (Dipterocarpus hispidus) which are Emergent Tree types and Maha Kuratiya (Syzygium rubicundum) ,Tiniya Dun (Shorea trapezifolia), Kiri Hembiliya (Palaquium grande), Honda Beraliya ( Shorea megistophylla), Pini Beraliya (Shorea disticha), Diya Na (Mesua thwaitesii), Na (Mesua ferrea) , Dun ( Shorea zeylanica) and Pelan (Bhesa ceylanica) of the Canopy layer trees are pictured here. Koti kan Beraliya (Shorea cordifolia), Rath Beraliya ( Hopea jucunda), Galmora (Pometia eximia),Keena (Calophyllum tomentosum), Ela Kirihembiliya (Palaquium canaliculatum), Walu Kina (Calophyllum bracteatum) and Dotalu (Loxococcus rupicola) of Sub Canopy layer trees at Sinharaja reserve also are figured here with many other important species of tropical trees. Endemic Trees of Sinharaja Forest Reserve.




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Floral Species, Family Description and Images

Click on the Thumbnail Photo to see the full size image

FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka    
 
Species Artocarpus heterophyllus
Grows to about
25m
Family Moraceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kos    

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Species Artocarpus champeden
Grows to about
10-15 m
Family Moraceae    
Local Sinhala Name Kuru Kos    

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Species Myristica fragrans
Grows to about
20 m
Family Myristicaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Sadikka    

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Species Cinnamomum verum
Grows to about
20 m
Family Lauraceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kurundu    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka    
 
Species Clausena indica
Grows to about
5m
Family Rutaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Mee Gon Karapincha
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Petrocarpus marsupium
Grows to about
20m
Family Fabaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Gammalu
   

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Species Mangiferaindica
Grows to about
20 m
Family Anacardiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Amba
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka  
 
Species Canarium commune
Grows to about
30-40 m
Family Burseraceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Rata Kekuna
   

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Species Terminalia bellirica
Grows to about
25 m
Family Combretaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Bulu    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka  
 
Species Sterculia balanghas
Grows to about
20 m
Family Sterculiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Nawa
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Sterculia foetida
Grows to about
20 m
Family Sterculiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Telambu
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka  
 
Species Sageraea thwaitesii
Grows to about
20 m
Family Annonaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name      

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka    
 
Species Hydnocarpus venenata
Grows to about
20 m
Family Flacourtiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Makulu    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka  
 
Species Strychnos nux-vomica
Grows to about
15m
Family Loganiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Goda Kaduru
   

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Sinharaja Rain Forest
Sub Canopy Layer
 
Species Pometia eximia
Grows to about
30 m
Family Sapindaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Galmora
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Swietenia macrophylla
Grows to about
30-40 m
Family Meliaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Mahogani
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka  
 
Species Tectona grandis
Grows to about
25 m
Family Verbenaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Tekka    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka  
 
Species Gmelina asiatica
Grows to about
5 m
Family Verbenaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name      

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Aphanamixis polystachya
Grows to about
20 m
Family Meliaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Higul
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Quassia indica
Grows to about
4 m
Family Simaroubaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Samadara
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka    
 
Species Beilschmiedia zeylanica
Grows to about
20 m
Family Lauraceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kanu    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Horsfieldia iryaghedhi
Grows to about
20 m
Family Myristicaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Ruk    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Heritiera littoralis
Grows to about
20 m
Family Sterculiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Etuna
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka  
 
Species Streblus asper
Grows to about
7 m
Family Moraceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Geta Nithul
   

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

 

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-FloraSriLanka

   
 
Sinharaja Rain Forest
Sub Canopy Layer
 
 
Species Calophyllum tomentosum
Grows to about
20 m
Family Clusiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Keena    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

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FloraSriLanka- FloraSriLanka

 

Species Dipterocarpus hispidus
Sinharaja Rain Forest
Emergent Tree
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Bu Hora
Grows to about
45 m

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

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-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Canopy Layer Tree
     
 
Species Shorea zeylanica
Grows to about
40 m
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Dun    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

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FloraSriLanka
-FloraSriLanka

Sinharaja Rain Forest
Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Mesua thwaitesii
Grows to about
30m
Family Clusiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Diya Na    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

 

FloraSriLanka

 

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Mesua ferrea
Grows to about
30 m
Family Clusiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Na    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Garcinia quaesita
Grows to about
15 m
Family Clusiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kana goraka    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Berrya cordifolia
Grows to about
20 m
Family Tiliaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Halmilla    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka    
 
Species Trichadenia zeylanica
Grows to about
38 m
Family Achariaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Tiththa    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

   
 

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Bhesa ceylanica
Grows to about
30 m
Family Celastraceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Pelan    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka    
 
Species Durio zibethinus
Grows to about
30 m
Family Bombacaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Durian    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

 

FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

 

   
 

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Sub Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Palaquium canaliculatum
Grows to about
25 m
Family Sapotaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Ela Kirihembiliya    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Mesua stylosa
Grows to about
6 m
Family Clusiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Suwenda    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

 

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Shorea megistophylla
Grows to about
40 m
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Honda Beraliya    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

 

 

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Shorea disticha
Grows to about
40 m
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Pini Beraliya    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

 

 
 

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Sub Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Hopea jucunda
Grows to about
15 m
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Rath Beraliya    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

 

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Sub Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Shorea cordifolia
Grows to about
20 m
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kotikan Beraliya    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Artocarpus gomezianus
Grows to about
35-45 m
Family Moraceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kanagonna    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Diplidiscus verrucosus
Grows to about
10 m
Family Tiliaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Dikwenna    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Lannea coromandelica
Grows to about
25 m
Family Anacardiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Hik    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka
 
Species Terminalia arjuna
Grows to about
30 m
Family Combretaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kumbuk    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

FloraSriLanka

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Sinharaja Rain
Forest Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Palaquium grande
Grows to about
30 m
Family Sapotaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kiri Hembiliya ,Kiripedda    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Shorea trapezifolia
Grows to about
40 m
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Tiniya Dun ,Yakahalu Dun    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Emergent Tree
 
Species Dipterocarpus zeylancus
Grows to about
45 m
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Hora    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

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Sinharaja Rain Forest
Emergent Tree
 
Species Shorea stipularis
Grows to about
45m
Family Dipterocarpaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Navanda, Nava Dun    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Sub Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Calophyllum bracteatum
Grows to about
20 m
Family Clusiaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Walu Kina    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Sub Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Loxococcus rupicola
Grows to about
25 m
Family Combretaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Dotalu    

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FloraSriLanka FloraSriLanka

-FloraSriLanka


Sinharaja Rain Forest
Canopy Layer Tree
 
Species Syzygium rubicundum
Grows to about
30 m
Family Myristicaceae
   
Local Sinhala Name Kurumbettiya,Kurati Damba, Maha Kuratiya  

 

 


 

 
       

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Icon Flora Species

 

Artocarpus heterophyllus
Artocarpus champeden
Myristica fragrans
Cinnamomum verum
Clausena indica
Petrocarpus marsupium
Mangiferaindica
Canarium commune
Terminalia bellirica
Sterculia balanghas
Sterculia foetida
Sageraea thwaitesii
Hydnocarpus venenata
Strychnos nux-vomica
Pometia eximia
Swietenia macrophylla
Tectona grandis
Gmelina asiatica
Aphanamixis polystachya
Quassia indica
Beilschmiedia zeylanica
Horsfieldia iryaghedhi
Heritiera littoralis
Streblus asper
Calophyllum tomentosum
Dipterocarpus hispidus
Shorea zeylanica
Mesua thwaitesii
Mesua ferrea
Garcinia quaesita
Berrya cordifolia
Trichadenia zeylanica
Bhesa ceylanica
Durio zibethinus
Palaquium canaliculatum
Mesua stylosa
Shorea megistophylla
Hopea jucunda
Shorea disticha
Shorea cordifolia
Artocarpus gomezianus
Diplidiscus verrucosus
Lannea coromandelica
Terminalia arjuna
Palaquium grande
Shorea trapezifolia
Dipterocarpus zeylancus
Shorea stipularis
Calophyllum bracteatum
Loxococcus rupicola
Syzygium rubicundum

Terminalia arjuna


Lagoon Eco System Flora Specie of Sri Lanka

Lagoon Flora specie


Plants of Sinharaja Rain Forest


Home Garden Landscapes, SriLanka

Orchid Flowers-SriLanka


 


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Anuradhapura

Degaldoruwa Temple

Embekke Devalaya

Hattikuchchi Temple

Kandy

Kelaniya Temple

Lankatilaka Temple

Mihintale

Mulkirigala Temple

Polonnaruwa

Ridi Vihara

Sigiriya

 

 

 


Icon nature travel srilanka

Horton Plains National Park

Knuckles Mountain Range

Nuwara Eliya

Pidurutalagala Mountain and Forest Reserve

Ritigala

Sinharaja Rain Forest

Udawattakele Sanctuary

 

E01 Southern Express Highway


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